COLORADO FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT

AND RELATED LAWS

( August 4, 2004 )

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

12-14-101. Short title..........................................................................................................1

12-14-102. Scope of article.................................................................................................1

12-14-103. Definitions........................................................................................................1

12-14-104. Location information - acquisition...................................................................3

12-14-105. Communication in connection with debt collection.........................................4

12-14-106. Harassment or abuse.........................................................................................5

12-14-107. False or misleading representations. ................................................................5

12-14-108. Unfair practices. ...............................................................................................6

12-14-109. Validation of debts. ..........................................................................................7

12-14-110. Multiple debts...................................................................................................8

12-14-111. Legal actions by collection agencies................................................................8

12-14-112. Deceptive forms. ..............................................................................................8

12-14-113. Civil liability. ...................................................................................................9

12-14-114. Administrative enforcement...........................................................................10

12-14-115. License - registration - unlawful acts. ............................................................10

12-14-116. Collection agency board - created..................................................................10

12-14-117. Powers and duties of the administrator. .........................................................11

12-14-118. Collection agency license - required ..............................................................11

12-14-119. Collection agency license - requirements - application - fee - expiration......11

12-14-120. License - issuance - grounds for denial - appeal - contents ...........................13

12-14-121. Collection agency license - renewals .............................................................13

12-14-122. Collection agency license - notification of change and reapplication

requirements...............................................................................................13

12-14-123. Duties of collection agencies..........................................................................14

12-14-124. Bond. ..............................................................................................................15

12-14-125. Debt collectors - registration required (Repealed) .........................................17

12-14-126. Solicitor - registration required. (Repealed)...................................................17

12-14-127. Debt collectors and solicitors - certificates of registration - application –

expiration - notification of change required. (Repealed) ...........................17

12-14-128. Unlawful acts..................................................................................................17

12-14-129. Criminal penalties. .........................................................................................18

12-14-130. Complaint - investigations - powers of the board - sanctions ........................18

12-14-130.1. Debt collectors for the department of personnel - complaint - disciplinary

procedures. .................................................................................................19

12-14-131. Records...........................................................................................................20

12-14-132. Jurisdiction of courts ......................................................................................20

12-14-133. Duty of district attorney .................................................................................20

12-14-134. Remedies ........................................................................................................20

12-14-135. Injunction - receiver. ......................................................................................20

12-14-136. Disposition of fees and fines. .........................................................................20

12-14-137. Termination of board......................................................................................20

RELATED LAWS

5-12-101. Legal rate of interest.........................................................................................21

6-20-201. Definitions [Notification of Debt by a Health Care Provider]……………….21

6-20-202. Notice to patient of debt [by a health care provider]…………………………21

13-21-109. Recovery of damages for checks, drafts or orders not paid upon

presentment. ...............................................................................................21

 

 

COLORADO FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT

12-14-101. Short title. This article shall be known and may be cited as the "Colorado Fair Debt

Collection Practices Act”.

12-14-102. Scope of article. (1) This article shall apply to any collection agency, solicitor, or

debt collector that has a place of business located:

(a) Within this state;

(b) Outside this state and collects or attempts to collect from consumers who reside within

this state for a creditor with a place of business located within this state;

(c) Outside this state and regularly collects or attempts to collect from consumers who reside

within this state for a creditor with a place of business located outside this state; or

(d) Outside this state and solicits or attempts to solicit debts for collection from a creditor

with a place of business located within this state.

(2) (Deleted by amendment, L. 95, p. 1224, § 1, effective July 1, 1995.)

12-14-103. Definitions. As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) "Administrator" means the administrator of the "Uniform Consumer Credit Code",

articles 1 to 9 of title 5, C.R.S., whose office is created in the department of law in section 5-

6-103, C.R.S.

(1.5) "Board" means the collection agency board created in section 12-14-116.

(2) (a) "Collection agency" means any:

(I) Person who engages in a business the principal purpose of which is the collection of

debts; or

(II) Person who:

(A) Regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, debts owed or due or

asserted to be owed or due another;

(B) Takes assignment of debts for collection purposes;

(C) Directly or indirectly solicits for collection debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or

due another;

(D) Collects debt for the department of personnel, but only for the purposes specified in

paragraph (d) of this subsection (2);

(b) "Collection agency" does not include:

(I) Any officer or employee of a creditor while, in the name of the creditor, collecting debts

for such creditor;

(II) Any person while acting as a collection agency for another person, both of whom are

related by common ownership or affiliated by corporate control, if the person acting as a

collection agency does so only for creditors to whom it is so related or affiliated and if the

principal business of such person is not the collection of debts;

(III) Any officer or employee of the United States or any state to the extent that collecting or

attempting to collect any debt is in the performance of such officer's or employee's official

duties, except as otherwise provided in subsection (7) of this section;

(IV) Any person while serving or attempting to serve legal process on any other person in

connection with the judicial enforcement of any debt;

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(V) Any nonprofit organization which, at the request of consumers, performs bona fide

consumer credit counseling and assists consumers in the liquidation of their debts by

receiving payments from such consumers and distributing such amounts to creditors;

(VI) Repealed.

(VII) Any person collecting or attempting to collect any debt owed or due or asserted to be

owed or due another to the extent that:

(A) Such activity is incidental to a bona fide fiduciary obligation or a bona fide escrow

arrangement;

(B) Such activity concerns a debt which was extended by such person;

(C) Such activity concerns a debt which was not in default at the time it was obtained by

such person; or

(D) Such activity concerns a debt obtained by such person as a secured party in a commercial

credit transaction involving the creditor;

(VIII) Any person whose principal business is the making of loans or the servicing of debt

not in default and who acts as a loan correspondent, or seller and servicer for the owner, or

holder of a debt which is secured by a deed of trust on real property whether or not such debt

is also secured by an interest in personal property.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (VII) of paragraph (b) of this subsection

(2), "collection agency" includes any person who, in the process of collecting his or her own

debts, uses another name which would indicate that a third person is collecting or attempting

to collect such debts.

(d) For the purposes of section 12-14-108 (1) (f), "collection agency" includes any person

engaged in any business the principal purpose of which is the enforcement of security

interests. For purposes of sections 12-14-104, 12-14-105, 12-14-106, 12-14-107, 12-14-108,

and 12-14-109 only, "collection agency" includes a debt collector for the department of

personnel.

(e) Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of this subsection (2), "collection agency" includes any

person who engages in any of the following activities; except that such person shall be

exempt from provisions of this article that concern licensing and licensees:

(I) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2000, p. 935, § 2, effective July 1, 2000.)

(II) Is an attorney-at-law and regularly engages in the collection or attempted collection of

debts in this state;

(III) Is a person located outside this state whose collection activities are limited to collecting

debts not incurred in this state from consumers located in this state and whose collection

activities are conducted by means of interstate communications, including telephone, mail, or

facsimile transmission, and who is located in another state that regulates and licenses

collection agencies but does not require Colorado collection agencies to obtain a license to

collect debts in their state if such agencies' collection activities are limited in the same

manner.

(3) "Communication" means conveying information regarding a debt in written or oral form,

directly or indirectly, to any person through any medium.

(4) "Consumer" means any natural person obligated or allegedly obligated to pay any debt.

(4.5) (a) "Consumer reporting agency" means any person that, for monetary fees, dues, or on

a cooperative nonprofit basis, regularly engages in whole or in part in the practice of

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assembling or evaluating consumer credit information or other information on consumers for

the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties.

(b) "Consumer reporting agency" shall not include any business entity that provides check

verification or check guarantee services only.

(c) "Consumer reporting agency" shall include any persons defined in 15 U.S.C. sec. 1681a

(f) or section 12-14.3-102 (4).

(5) "Creditor" means any person who offers or extends credit creating a debt or to which a

debt is owed, but such term does not include any person to the extent such person receives an

assignment or transfer of a debt in default solely for the purpose of facilitating collection of

such debt for another.

(6) (a) "Debt" means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money

arising out of a transaction, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment.

(b) "Debt" does not include a debt for business, investment, commercial, or agricultural

purposes or a debt incurred by a business.

(7) "Debt collector" means any person employed or engaged by a collection agency to

perform the collection of debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or due to another, and

includes any person employed by the department of personnel, or any division of said

department, when collecting debts due to the state on behalf of another state agency.

(8) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2000, p. 935, § 2, effective July 1, 2000.)

(9) "Location information" means a consumer's place of abode and his telephone number at

such place or his place of employment.

(9.3) "Person" means a natural person, firm, corporation, limited liability company, or

partnership.

(9.5) "Principal" means any individual having a position of responsibility in a collection

agency, including but not limited to any manager, director, officer, partner, owner, or

shareholder owning ten percent or more of the stock.

(10) "Solicitor" means any person employed or engaged by a collection agency who solicits

or attempts to solicit debts for collection by such person or any other person.

(11) "State" means any state, territory, or possession of the United States , the District of

Columbia , the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , or any political subdivision of any of them.

12-14-104. Location information - acquisition. (1) Any debt collector or collection agency

communicating with any person other than the consumer for the purpose of acquiring location

information about the consumer shall:

(a) Identify himself, state that he is confirming or correcting location information concerning

the consumer, and, only if expressly requested, identify his employer;

(b) Not state that such consumer owes any debt;

(c) Not communicate with any such person more than once unless requested to do so by such

person or unless the debt collector or collection agency reasonably believes that the earlier

response of such person is erroneous or incomplete and that such person now has correct or

complete location information;

(d) Not communicate by postcard;

(e) Not use any language or symbol on any envelope or in the contents of any

communication effected by the mails or telegram that indicates that the debtor collector or

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collection agency is in the debt collection business or that the communication relates to the

collection of a debt; and

(f) After the debt collector or collection agency knows the consumer is represented by an

attorney with regard to the subject debt and has knowledge of, or can readily ascertain, such

attorney's name and address, not communicate with any person other than that attorney,

unless the attorney fails to respond within a reasonable period of time, not less than thirty

days, to communication from the debt collector or collection agency

12-14-105. Communication in connection with debt collection. (1) Without the prior consent

of the consumer given directly to the debt collector or collection agency or the express

permission of a court of competent jurisdiction, a debt collector or collection agency shall not

communicate with a consumer in connection with the collection of any debt:

(a) At any unusual time, place, or manner known or which should be known to be

inconvenient to the consumer. In the absence of knowledge of circumstances to the contrary,

a debt collector or collection agency shall assume that the convenient time for

communicating with a consumer is after 8 a.m. and before 9 p.m. local time at the

consumer's location.

(b) If the debt collector or collection agency knows the consumer is represented by an

attorney with respect to such debt and has knowledge of, or can readily ascertain, such

attorney's name and address, unless the attorney fails to respond within a reasonable period

of time to a communication from the debt collector or collection agency or unless the

attorney consents to direct communication with the consumer; or

(c) At the consumer's place of employment if the debt collector or collection agency knows

or has reason to know that the consumer's employer prohibits the consumer from receiving

such communication.

(2) Except as provided in section 12-14-104, without the prior consent of the consumer given

directly to the debt collector or collection agency or the express permission of a court of

competent jurisdiction or as reasonably necessary to effectuate a postjudgment judicial

remedy, a debt collector or collection agency shall not communicate, in connection with the

collection of any debt, with any person other than the consumer, his attorney, a consumer

reporting agency if otherwise permitted by law, the creditor, the attorney of the creditor, or

the attorney of the collection agency.

(3) (a) If a consumer notifies a debt collector or collection agency in writing that the

consumer refuses to pay a debt or that the consumer wishes the debt collector or collection

agency to cease further communication with the consumer, the debt collector or collection

agency shall not communicate further with the consumer with respect to such debt, except to:

(I) Advise the consumer that the debt collector's or collection agency's further efforts are

being terminated;

(II) Notify the consumer that the collection agency or creditor may invoke specified remedies

that are ordinarily invoked by such collection agency or creditor; or

(III) Notify the consumer that the collection agency or creditor intends to invoke a specified

remedy.

(b) If such notice from the consumer is made by mail, notification shall be complete upon

receipt.

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(c) In its initial written communication to a consumer, a collection agency shall include the

following statement: "FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE COLORADO FAIR DEBT

COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT, SEE WWW.AGO.STATE.CO.US/CAB.HTM." If such

notification is placed on the back of the written communication, there shall be a statement on

the front notifying the consumer of such fact.

(d) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2003, p. 1865, § 2, effective May 21, 2003.)

(4) For the purpose of this section, "consumer" includes the consumer's spouse, parent (if the

consumer is a minor), guardian, executor, or administrator.

(5) It shall be an affirmative defense to any action based upon failure of a debt collector or

collection agency to comply with this section that the debt collector or collection agency

believed, in good faith, that the debtor was other than a natural person.

12-14-106. Harassment or abuse. (1) A debt collector or collection agency shall not engage in

any conduct the natural consequence of which is to harass, oppress, or abuse any person in

connection with the collection of a debt, including, but not limited to, the following conduct:

(a) The use or threat of use of violence or other criminal means to harm the physical person,

reputation, or property of any person;

(b) The use of obscene or profane language or language the natural consequence of which is

to abuse the hearer or reader;

(c) The publication of a list of consumers who allegedly refuse to pay debts, except to a

consumer reporting agency or to persons meeting the requirements of 15 U.S.C. sec. 1681b

(a) (3) and section 12-14.3-103 (1) (c);

(d) The advertisement for sale of any debt to coerce payment of the debt or agreeing to do so

for the purpose of solicitation of claims;

(e) Causing a telephone to ring or engaging any person in telephone conversation repeatedly

or continuously with intent to annoy, abuse, or harass any person at the called number;

(f) Except as provided in section 12-14-104, the placement of telephone calls without

meaningful disclosure of the caller's identity within the first sixty seconds after the other

party to the call is identified as the debtor.

12-14-107. False or misleading representations. (1) A debt collector or collection agency

shall not use any false, deceptive, or misleading representation or means in connection with the

collection of any debt, including, but not limited to, the following conduct:

(a) The false representation or implication that the debt collector or collection agency is

vouched for, bonded by, or affiliated with the United States government or any state

government, including the use of any misleading name, badge, uniform, or facsimile thereof;

(b) The false representation of:

(I) The character, amount, or legal status of any debt; or

(II) Any services rendered or compensation which may be lawfully received by any debt

collector for the collection of a debt;

(c) The false representation or implication that any individual is an attorney or that any

communication is from an attorney;

(d) The representation or implication that nonpayment of any debt will result in the arrest or

imprisonment of any person or in the seizure, garnishment, attachment, or sale of any

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property or wages of any person unless such action is lawful and the debt collector,

collection agency, or creditor intends to take such action;

(e) The threat to take any action that cannot legally be taken or that is not intended to be

taken;

(f) The false representation or implication that a sale, referral, or other transfer of any interest

in a debt shall cause the consumer to:

(I) Lose any claim or defense to payment of the debt; or

(II) Become subject to any practice prohibited by this article;

(g) The false representation or implication that the consumer committed any crime;

(h) The false representation or implication that the consumer has engaged in any disgraceful

conduct;

(i) Communicating or threatening to communicate to any person credit information which is

known or which should be known to be false, including the failure to communicate that a

disputed debt is disputed;

(j) The use or distribution of any written communication which simulates or is falsely

represented to be a document authorized, issued, or approved by any court, official, or

agency of the United States or any state or which creates a false or misleading impression as

to its source, authorization, or approval;

(k) The use of any false representation or deceptive means to collect or attempt to collect any

debt or to obtain information concerning a consumer;

(l) Except as otherwise provided for communications to acquire location information under

section 12-14-104, the failure to disclose clearly, in the initial written communication made

to collect a debt or obtain information about a consumer and also, if the initial

communication with the consumer is oral, in the initial oral communication, that the debt

collector or collection agency is attempting to collect a debt and that any information

obtained will be used for that purpose, and, in subsequent communications, that the

communication is from a debt collector or collection agency; except that this paragraph (l)

shall not apply to a formal pleading made in connection with a legal action;

(m) The false representation or implication that accounts have been turned over to innocent

purchasers for value;

(n) The false representation or implication that documents are legal process;

(o) The use of any business, company, or organization name other than the true name of the

collection agency's business, company, or organization;

(p) The false representation or implication that documents are not legal process forms or do

not require action by the consumer;

(q) The false representation or implication that a debt collector or collection agency operates

or is employed by a consumer reporting agency.

12-14-108. Unfair practices. (1) A debt collector or collection agency shall not use unfair or

unconscionable means to collect or attempt to collect any debt, including, but not limited to, the

following conduct:

(a) The collection of any amount, including any interest, fee, charge, or expense incidental to

the principal obligation, unless such amount is expressly authorized by the agreement

creating the debt or permitted by law;

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(b) The acceptance by a debt collector or collection agency from any person of a check or

other payment instrument postdated by more than five days unless such person is notified in

writing of the debt collector's or collection agency's intent to deposit such check or

instrument not more than ten nor less than three business days prior to such deposit;

(c) The solicitation by a debt collector or collection agency of any postdated check or other

postdated payment instrument for the purpose of threatening or instituting criminal

prosecution;

(d) Depositing or threatening to deposit any postdated check or other postdated payment

instrument prior to the date on such check or instrument;

(e) Causing charges to be made to any person for communications by concealment of the true

purpose of the communication. Such charges include, but are not limited to, collect telephone

calls and telegram fees.

(f) Taking or threatening to take any nonjudicial action to effect dispossession or disablement

of property if:

(I) There is no present right to possession of the property claimed as collateral through an

enforceable security interest;

(II) There is no present intention to take possession of the property; or

(III) The property is exempt by law from such dispossession or disablement;

(g) Communicating with a consumer regarding a debt by postcard;

(h) Using any language or symbol, other than the debt collector's or collection agency's

address, on any envelope when communicating with a consumer by use of the mails or by

telegram; except that a debt collector or collection agency may use his business name if such

name does not indicate that he is in the debt collection business;

(i) Failing to comply with the provisions of section 13-21-109, C.R.S., regarding the

collection of checks, drafts, or orders not paid upon presentment;

(j) Communicating credit information to a consumer reporting agency earlier than thirty days

after the initial notice to the consumer has been mailed, unless the consumer's last-known

address is known to be invalid. This paragraph (j) shall not apply to checks, negotiable

instruments, or credit card drafts.

12-14-109. Validation of debts. (1) Within five days after the initial communication with a

consumer in connection with the collection of any debt, a debt collector or collection agency

shall, unless the following information is contained in the initial communication or the consumer

has paid the debt, send the consumer a written notice with the disclosures specified in paragraphs

(a) to (e) of this subsection (1). If such disclosures are placed on the back of the notice, the front

of the notice shall contain a statement notifying consumers of that fact. Such disclosures shall

state:

(a) The amount of the debt;

(b) The name of the creditor to whom the debt is owed;

(c) That, unless the consumer, within thirty days after receipt of the notice, disputes the

validity of the debt, or any portion thereof, the debt will be assumed to be valid by the debt

collector or collection agency;

(d) That, if the consumer notifies the debt collector or collection agency in writing within the

thirty-day period that the debt, or any portion thereof, is disputed, the debt collector or

collection agency will obtain verification of the debt or a copy of a judgment against the

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consumer and a copy of such verification or judgment will be mailed to the consumer by the

debt collector or collection agency;

(e) That upon the consumer's written request within the thirty-day period, the debt collector

or collection agency will provide the consumer with the name and address of the original

creditor, if different from the current creditor.

(f) and (g) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2003, p. 1866, § 4, effective May 21, 2003.)

(2) If the consumer notifies the debt collector or collection agency in writing within the

thirty-day period described in paragraph (c) of subsection (1) of this section that the debt, or

any portion thereof, is disputed or that the consumer requests the name and address of the

original creditor, the debt collector or collection agency shall cease collection of the debt, or

any disputed portion thereof, until the debt collector or collection agency obtains verification

of the debt or a copy of a judgment or the name and address of the original creditor and mails

a copy of such verification or judgment or name and address of the original creditor to the

consumer.

(3) The failure of a consumer to dispute the validity of a debt under this section shall not be

construed by any court as an admission of liability by the consumer.

(4) It shall be an affirmative defense to any action based upon failure of a debt collector or

collection agency to comply with this section that the debt collector or collection agency

believed, in good faith, that the debtor was other than a natural person.

12-14-110. Multiple debts. If any consumer owes multiple debts and makes any single payment

to any collection agency with respect to such debts, such collection agency shall not apply such

payment to any debt which is disputed by the consumer and when so informed shall apply such

payment in accordance with the consumer's directions.

12-14-111. Legal actions by collection agencies. (1) Any debt collector or collection agency

who brings any legal action on a debt against any consumer shall:

(a) In the case of an action to enforce an interest in real property securing the consumer's

obligation, bring such action only in a judicial district or similar legal entity in which such

real property is located; or

(b) In the case of an action not described in paragraph (a) of this subsection (1), bring such

action only in the judicial district or similar legal entity in which:

(I) Such consumer signed the contract sued upon;

(II) Such consumer resides at the commencement of the action; or

(III) Such action may be brought pursuant to article 13 or 13.5 of title 26, C.R.S., section 14-

14-104, C.R.S., or article 4 or 6 of title 19, C.R.S., if the action is by a private collection

agency acting on behalf of a delegate child support enforcement unit

12-14-112. Deceptive forms. (1) It is unlawful for any person to design, compile, and furnish

any form knowing that such form would be used to create the false belief in a consumer that a

person other than the creditor of such consumer is participating in the collection or in the

attempted collection of a debt that such consumer allegedly owes such creditor when in fact such

person is not so participating.

(2) Any person who violates this section shall be liable to the same extent and in the same

manner as a debt collector or collection agency under section 12-14-113 for failure to comply

with this article.

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(3) This section shall apply if the person supplying or using the forms or the consumer

receiving the forms is located within this state.

12-14-113. Civil liability. (1) In addition to administrative enforcement pursuant to section 12-

14-114 and subject to section 12-14-134 and the limitations provided by subsection (9) of this

section, and except as otherwise provided by this section, any debt collector or collection agency

who fails to comply with any provision of this article with respect to a consumer is liable to such

consumer in an amount equal to the sum of:

(a) Any actual damage sustained by such consumer as a result of such failure;

(b) (I) In the case of any action by an individual, such additional damages as the court may

allow, but not to exceed one thousand dollars;

(II) In the case of a class action, such amount for each named plaintiff as could be recovered

under subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (b) and such amount as the court may allow for all

other class members, without regard to a minimum individual recovery, not to exceed five

hundred thousand dollars or one percent of the net worth of the debt collector or collection

agency, whichever is the lesser; and

(c) In the case of any successful action to enforce such liability, the costs of the action,

together with such reasonable attorney fees as may be determined by the court.

(1.5) In the case of any unsuccessful action brought under this section, the plaintiff shall be

liable to each defendant in an amount equal to that defendant's cost incurred in defending the

action, together with such reasonable attorney fees as may be determined by the court.

(2) In determining the amount of liability in any action under subsection (1) of this section,

the court shall consider, among other relevant factors:

(a) In any individual action under subparagraph (I) of paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of this

section, the frequency and persistence of noncompliance by the debt collector or collection

agency, the nature of such noncompliance, and the extent to which such noncompliance was

intentional;

(b) In any class action under subparagraph (II) of paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of this

section, the frequency and persistence of noncompliance by the debt collector or collection

agency, the nature of such noncompliance, the resources of the debt collector or collection

agency, the number of persons adversely affected, and the extent to which the debt collector's

or collection agency's noncompliance was intentional.

(3) A debt collector or collection agency may not be held liable in any action brought

pursuant to the provisions of this article if the debt collector or collection agency shows by a

preponderance of evidence that the violation was not intentional or grossly negligent and

which violation resulted from a bona fide error, notwithstanding the maintenance of

procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error.

(4) An action to enforce any liability created by the provisions of this article may be brought

in any court of competent jurisdiction within one year from the date on which the violation

occurs.

(5) No provision of this section imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted

in good faith in conformity with any advisory opinion of the board, notwithstanding that,

after such act or omission has occurred, such opinion is amended, rescinded, or determined

by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

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(6) The policy of this state is not to award double damages under this article and the federal

"Fair Debt Collection Practices Act", 15 U.S.C. 1692 et seq. No damages under this section

shall be recovered if damages are recovered for a like provision of said federal act.

(7) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, harassment of the employer or the family

of a consumer shall be considered an invasion of privacy and a civil action may be brought

which is not subject to the damage limitations of said subsection (1).

(8) It shall be an affirmative defense to any action based upon failure of a debt collector or

collection agency to comply with this section that the debt collector or collection agency

believed, in good faith, that the debtor was other than a natural person.

(9) There shall be no private cause of action under this section for any alleged violation of

section 12-14-128 (4) (a). Violations of section 12-14-128 (4) (a) may be prosecuted only

through administrative enforcement pursuant to section 12-14-114.

12-14-114. Administrative enforcement. Compliance with this article shall be enforced by the

board. The board has power to make reasonable rules for the administration and enforcement of

this article, including standards of conduct for licensees and collection notices and forms.

12-14-115. License - registration - unlawful acts. (1) It is unlawful for any person to:

(a) Conduct the business of a collection agency or advertise or solicit, either in print, by letter,

in person, or otherwise, the right to make collection or obtain payment of any debt on behalf

of another without having obtained a license under this article; or

(b) Conduct the business of a collection agency under any name other than that under which

licensed.

(2) and (3) Repealed.

(3.5) It is unlawful for a person to act as a collections manager without having complied with

sections 12-14-119 and 12-14-122.

(4) It is unlawful for any person to employ any person as a solicitor, collections manager, or

debt collector under this article without complying with this section.

12-14-116. Collection agency board - created. (1) For the purpose of carrying out the

provisions of this article, the governor shall appoint five members to the collection agency board,

which board is hereby created. The members of the board serving on July 1, 2003 , shall continue

to serve their appointed terms, and their successors shall be appointed for three-year terms. Upon

the death, resignation, or removal of any member of the board, the governor shall appoint a

member to fill the unexpired term. Any member of the board may be removed by the governor

for misconduct, neglect of duty, or incompetence. No member may serve more than two

consecutive terms without first a lapse of at least one term before being appointed to any

additional terms.

(2) No person shall be appointed as a member of such board unless such person is a bona fide

resident of the state of Colorado . Effective July 1, 2000 , board appointments shall ensure that

three members of the board have been engaged in the collection business within the state of

Colorado , either as a collections manager, owner, or part owner of a licensed collection

agency. Two members of the board shall be representatives of the general public and not

engaged in the collection business.

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(3) Each member of the board shall be allowed a per diem compensation of fifty dollars and

actual expenses for each day of active service, payable from the moneys appropriated to the

board.

(4) The board shall meet annually for the purpose of organization by electing a chairman, a

vice-chairman, and a secretary of the board for the ensuing year.

(5) The board shall meet regularly at such times and places as the business of the board may

necessitate upon full and timely notice to each of the members of the board of the time and

place of such meeting. A majority of said board shall constitute a quorum of said board.

12-14-117. Powers and duties of the administrator. (1) Any provision of this article to the

contrary notwithstanding, the board, created by section 12-14-116, is under the supervision and

control of the administrator, who may exercise any of the powers granted to the board.

(2) The administrator is authorized to develop any examination required for the

administration of this article and to determine the amount of any examination fee. The

administrator shall offer each such examination at least twice a year, or more frequently if

demand warrants, and shall establish a passing score for each examination that reflects a

minimum level of competency.

(3) The administrator is authorized to approve or deny any application submitted pursuant to

this article and to issue any license authorized by this article.

(4) Any complaint received by the administrator regarding violations of this article by an

attorney shall be forwarded to the supreme court's attorney regulation counsel.

12-14-118. Collection agency license - required. Any person acting as a collection agency must

possess a valid license issued by the administrator in accordance with this article and any rules

and regulations adopted pursuant thereto.

12-14-119. Collection agency license - requirements - application - fee - expiration. (1) As

requisites for licensure, the applicant for a collection agency license shall:

(a) (I) Be owned by, or employ as collections manager or an executive officer of the agency,

at least one individual who has been engaged in a responsible position in an established

collection agency for a period of at least two years.

(II) Notwithstanding the requirements of subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a), the board

may substitute other business experience for such requirements where such business

experience has provided comparable experience in collections.

(b) (I) Employ a collections manager who shall:

(A) If hired on or after July 1, 1990 , pass a written examination administered by the

administrator, unless such person was approved by the collection agency board as collections

manager before July 1, 1990 , and has since been continuously employed by a licensed

collection agency in this state.

(B) Be responsible for the actions of the debt collectors in that office.

(II) The collections manager may be the same individual specified in paragraph (a) of this

subsection (1) if the collections manager also meets the qualifications of said paragraph (a).

(c) File a bond in the amount and manner specified in section 12-14-124;

(d) If a foreign corporation, comply fully with the laws of this state so as to entitle it to do

business within the state.

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(2) Each applicant for a collection agency license shall submit an application providing all

information in the form and manner the administrator shall designate, including, but not

limited to:

(a) The location, ownership, and, if applicable, the previous history of the business and the

name, address, age, and relevant debt-collection experience of each of the principals of the

business;

(b) A duly verified financial statement for the previous year;

(c) If a corporation, the name of the shareholder and the number of shares held by any

shareholder owning ten percent or more of the stock; and

(d) For the principals and the collections manager of the applicant:

(I) The conviction of any felony or the acceptance by a court of competent jurisdiction of a

plea of guilty or nolo contendere to any felony;

(II) The denial, revocation, or suspension of any license issued to any collection agency

which employed or was owned by such persons, in whole or in part, directly or indirectly,

and a statement of their position and authority at such collection agency:

(A) For any license issued pursuant to this article; or

(B) For any comparable license issued by any other jurisdiction;

(III) The taking of any other disciplinary or adverse action or the existence of any

outstanding complaints against any collection agency which employed or was owned in

whole or in part, directly or indirectly, by such persons, and a statement of their position and

authority at such collection agency:

(A) For any license issued pursuant to this article; or

(B) When such action was taken by any other jurisdiction or such complaint exists in any

other jurisdiction, whether or not a license was issued by that jurisdiction;

(IV) The suspension or termination of approval of any collections manager under this article,

or any other disciplinary or adverse action taken against the applicant, principal, or

collections manager by the board or any other jurisdiction.

(3) At the time the application is submitted, the applicant shall pay a nonrefundable

investigation fee in an amount to be determined by the board.

(4) When the administrator approves the application, the applicant shall pay a nonrefundable

license fee in an amount to be determined by the administrator in consultation with the board.

(5) The administrator shall establish procedures for the maintenance of license lists and the

establishment of initial and renewal license fees and schedules. The administrator may

change the renewal date of any license issued pursuant to this article to the end that

approximately the same number of licenses are scheduled for renewal in each month of the

year. Where any renewal date is so changed, the fee for the license shall be proportionately

increased or decreased, as the case may be. Every licensee shall pay the administrator a

license fee to be determined and collected pursuant to section 12-14-121 and subsection (4)

of this section, and shall obtain a license certificate for the current license period.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a licensee, at any time, may voluntarily

surrender the license to the administrator to be cancelled, but such surrender shall not affect

the licensee's liability for violations of this article that occurred prior to the date of surrender.

(6) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2003, p. 1868, § 8, effective May 21, 2003.)

(7) A collection agency must obtain a license for its principal place of business, but its

branch offices, if any, need not obtain separate licenses. A collection agency with branch

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offices must notify the administrator in writing of the location of each branch office within

thirty days after the branch office commences business.

12-14-120. License - issuance - grounds for denial - appeal - contents. (1) Upon the approval

of the license application by the administrator and the satisfaction of all application

requirements, the administrator shall issue the applicant a license to operate as a collection

agency.

(2) The administrator may deny any application for a license or its renewal if any grounds

exist that would justify disciplinary action under section 12-14-130, for failure to meet the

requirements of section 12-14-119, or if the applicant, the applicant's principals, or the

applicant's collections manager have fraudulently obtained or attempted to obtain a license.

(3) If any application for a license or its renewal is denied, the applicant may appeal the

decision pursuant to section 24-4-104, C.R.S.

(4) The license shall state the name of the licensee, location by street and number or office

building and room number, city, county, and state where the licensee has his principal place

of business, together with the number and date of such license and the date of expiration of

the license, and shall further state that it is issued pursuant to this article and that the licensee

is duly authorized under this article.

(5) Repealed.

(6) The administrator may deny any application for a license or its renewal if the collection

agency has failed to perform the duties enumerated in section 12-14-123.

(7) The administrator may deny any application for a license or its renewal if the collection

agency does not have a positive net worth.

12-14-121. Collection agency license - renewals. Each licensee shall make an application to

renew its license in the form and manner prescribed by the administrator. The application shall

be accompanied by a nonrefundable renewal fee in an amount determined by the administrator in

consultation with the board.

12-14-122. Collection agency license - notification of change and reapplication

requirements. (1) (a) Upon any of the following changes, the licensee shall notify the

administrator in writing of such change within thirty days after its occurrence:

(I) Change of business name or address;

(II) If a corporation, change in ownership of ten or more percent but less than fifty percent of

the corporate stock.

(b) If the licensee fails to provide such written notification, the license shall automatically

expire on the thirtieth day following such change.

(2) (a) Upon any of the changes specified in paragraph (c) of this subsection (2), the licensee

shall apply for a new license within thirty days of said change. The administrator shall have

twenty-five days to review the application and issue or deny the new license. If the

administrator denies the license, the administrator shall provide to the licensee a written

statement stating why the application for the license was denied, and the licensee shall have

fifteen days to cure any defects in said application. The administrator shall approve or deny

the resubmitted application within fifteen days.

(b) If the licensee fails to file an application for a new license, the license shall expire on the

thirtieth day following the change which necessitated the new license application. If the

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application is denied and the licensee fails to resubmit the application within fifteen days of

said denial, the license shall expire on the fifteenth day following the denial.

(c) The changes which require a new license application are:

(I) In a sole proprietorship or partnership, any change in the persons owning the collection

agency;

(II) In a corporation, any change of ownership of fifty percent or more of the stock in any

one transaction or a cumulative change of ownership of fifty percent or more from the date of

the issuance of the license or from the date of the latest renewal of the license;

(III) Any change of ownership structure, including but not limited to a change to or from a

sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation. No investigation fee shall be required in the

event of such a change and the application required may be more abbreviated than that

required for an initial license, as determined by the administrator.

(3) (a) Upon a change of collections manager, the licensee shall notify the administrator in

the form and manner designated by the administrator. The licensee shall appoint a new

collections manager within thirty days of such change.

(b) The administrator, within fifteen days, shall approve or disapprove the qualifications of

the new collections manager, or shall direct the new collections manager to take the

examination authorized pursuant to section 12-14-119 (1) (b).

(c) The licensee may continue to operate as a collection agency unless and until the

administrator disapproves the qualifications of the new collections manager.

(4) Any licensee which has submitted an application for a new license may continue to

operate as a collection agency until the final decision of the administrator.

(5) The licensee may appeal the final decision of the administrator pursuant to section 24-4-

104, C.R.S.

12-14-123. Duties of collection agencies. (1) A licensee shall:

(a) Maintain, at all times, liquid assets in the form of deposit accounts in the total sum of not

less than two thousand five hundred dollars more than all sums due and owing to all of its

clients;

(b) Maintain, at all times, an office within this state which is open to the public during

normal business hours and which is staffed by at least one full-time employee, said office to

keep a record of all moneys collected and remitted by such agency for residents of Colorado ;

(c) Maintain, at all times, a trust account for the benefit of its clients which shall contain, at

all times, sufficient funds to pay all sums due or owing to all of its clients. The trust account

shall be maintained in a commercial bank, industrial bank, or savings and loan association

account in this state or accessible in a branch in this state until disbursed to the creditor. Such

account shall be clearly designated as a trust account and shall be used only for such

purposes and not as an operating account. A deposit of all funds received to a trust account

followed by a transfer of the agency share of the collection to an operating account is not a

violation of this section.

(d) Within thirty days after the last day of the month in which any collections are made for a

client, account to the client for all collections made during that month and remit to the client

all moneys owed to the client pursuant to the agreement between the client and the collection

agency;

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(e) Upon written demand of the board, within five days of receipt of such demand, produce a

complete set of all form notices or form letters used by the licensee in the collection of

accounts;

(f) Be responsible, pursuant to this article, for violations of this article that are caused by its

collections manager, debt collectors, or solicitors.

(2) (a) No collection agency shall employ any collections manager, debt collector, or

solicitor who has been convicted of or who has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to

any crime specified in part 4 of article 4 or in part 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 of article 5 of title 18,

C.R.S., or any similar crime under the jurisdiction of any federal court or court of another

state.

(b) No collection agency shall be owned or operated by the following persons who have been

convicted of or who have entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to any crime specified

in part 4 of article 4 or in part 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 of article 5 of title 18, C.R.S., or any similar

crime under the jurisdiction of any federal court or court of another state:

(I) The owner of a sole proprietorship;

(II) A partner of a partnership;

(III) A member of a limited liability company; or

(IV) An officer or director of a corporation.

(3) Paragraphs (a), (c), and (d) of subsection (1) of this section do not apply to a person

collecting or attempting to collect a debt owned by the person collecting or attempting to

collect such debt.

12-14-124. Bond. (1) Each licensee shall maintain at all times and each applicant shall file,

prior to the issuance of any license to such applicant, a bond in the sum of twelve thousand

dollars plus an additional two thousand dollars for each ten thousand dollars or part thereof by

which the average monthly sums remitted or owed to all of its clients during the previous year

exceed fifteen thousand dollars; or, in the alternative, an applicant or licensee shall present

evidence of a savings account, deposit, or certificate of deposit of the same sum and meeting the

requirements of section 11-35-101, C.R.S. The total amount of the bond shall not exceed twenty

thousand dollars and shall be in favor of the attorney general of the state of Colorado for use of

the people of the state of Colorado and the collection agency board. Such bond shall be executed

by the applicant or licensee as principal and by a corporation which is licensed by the

commissioner of insurance to transact the business of fidelity and surety insurance as surety. If

any such surety, during the life of the bond, cancels the bond or reduces the penal sum of the

bond, it immediately shall notify the board in writing. The board shall give notice to the licensee

that the bond has been cancelled or reduced and that the licensee's license shall automatically

expire unless a new or increased bond with proper sureties is filed within thirty days after the

date the board received the notice, or on such later date as is stated in the surety's notice.

(2) The bond shall include a condition that the licensee shall, upon demand in writing made

by the board, pay over to said board for the use of any client from whom any debt is taken or

received for collection by said licensee, the proceeds of such collection, less the charges for

collection in accordance with the terms of the agreement made between said licensee and the

client.

(3) A client may file with the board a duly verified claim as to money due such client for

money collected by a licensee. If the board makes a preliminary determination that a claim

16

meets the requirements of this section it shall make a demand for the amount claimed. Such

demand may be made on the licensee, the surety, or both.

(4) If a receiver has been appointed by any court of competent jurisdiction in the state of

Colorado to take charge of the assets of any licensee, such receiver, upon the written consent

of the board, first had and obtained, may make demand for and receive payment on said bond

from the surety on such bond of said licensee and, upon order of court first had and obtained,

may bring suit upon said bond in the name of such receiver, without joining the board as a

party to said action.

(5) If a client has filed a duly verified claim with the board, which has refused to make

demand upon the licensee or surety, the client may bring suit against the licensee or surety on

the bond for the recovery of money due from such licensee without assignment of such bond

to the client. Nothing in this section shall preclude a client from making a demand on both

the licensee and the surety.

(6) (a) Said bond shall include a condition that the licensee shall, upon written demand, turn

over to the client any and all notes, valuable papers, or evidence of indebtedness which may

have been deposited with said licensee by the client, but such licensee shall not be required

to return any such papers, notes, or evidence of indebtedness on debts in process of

collection, unless reimbursed by the client for the services performed on the debt so

evidenced.

(b) "Debts in process of collection" means any debts which have been in said licensee's

hands for less than nine months, debts on which payments are being made, or on which

payments have been promised, debts on which suit has been brought, and claims which have

been forwarded to any other collection agency or attorney.

(7) Such bond shall cover all matters placed with said licensee during the term of the license

granted and any renewal, except as provided in this section. Such bond may be enforced in

the manner described in this section, by a receiver appointed to take charge of the assets of

any licensee, or by any client if the board refuses to act. The aggregate liability of the surety,

for any and all claims which may arise under such bond, shall not exceed the penalty of such

bond.

(8) Any licensee, at any time, may file a new bond with the board. Any surety may file with

the board notice of withdrawal as surety on the bond of any licensee. Upon filing of such

new bond or on expiration of thirty days after the filing of notice of withdrawal as surety by

the surety, the liability of the former surety for all future acts of the licensee shall terminate,

except as provided in subsection (9) of this section. The board shall cancel the bond given by

any surety company upon being advised its license to transact the business of fidelity and

surety insurance has been revoked by the commissioner of insurance and shall notify the

licensee.

(9) No action shall be brought upon any bond required to be given and filed, after the

expiration of two years from the surrender, revocation, or expiration of the license issued

thereunder. After the expiration of said period of two years, all liability of the surety upon the

said bond shall cease if no action has been commenced upon said bond before the expiration

of the period.

(10) In lieu of an individual surety bond, the administrator may authorize a blanket bond

covering qualifying licensees in the sum of two million dollars in favor of the attorney

general of the state of Colorado for use of the people of the state of Colorado and the

17

collection agency board. Each new and renewal applicant shall pay a fee in an amount

determined by the administrator to offset the applicant's share of the blanket bond.

Conditions and procedures regarding the bond shall be as set forth in this section for

individual bonds.

(11) This section does not apply to a person collecting or attempting to collect a debt owned

by the person collecting or attempting to collect such debt.

12-14-125. Debt collectors - registration required. (1) Repealed.

(2) (Deleted by amendment, L. 95, p. 1237, § 19, effective July 1, 1995.)

12-14-126. Solicitor - registration required. (Repealed)

12-14-127. Debt collectors and solicitors - certificates of registration - application -

expiration - notification of change required. (Repealed)

12-14-128. Unlawful acts. (1) In addition to the unlawful acts specified in sections 12-14-112

and 12-14-115, it is unlawful and a violation of this article for any person:

(a) To refuse or fail to comply with section 12-14-104, 12-14-105, 12-14-106, 12-14-107,

12-14-108, 12-14-109, 12-14-110, 12-14-118, 12-14-119 (1), or 12-14-123 (1) (b) to (1) (e)

or (2);

(b) To aid or abet any person operating or attempting to operate in violation of this article,

including but not limited to section 12-14-115; except that nothing in this article shall

prevent any licensed collection agency from accepting, as forwardee, claims for collection

from any collection agency or attorney whose place of business is outside this state;

(c) To recover or attempt to recover treble damages for any check, draft, or order not paid on

presentment without complying with the provisions of section 13-21-109, C.R.S.

(2) It is unlawful and a violation of this article for any licensee or any attorney representing a

licensee to invoke a cognovit clause in any note so as to confess judgment.

(3) It is unlawful and a violation of this article for any licensee to render or to advertise that it

will render legal services; except that a licensee may solicit claims for collection and take

assignments and pursue the collection thereof subject to the provisions of law concerning the

unauthorized practice of law.

(4) It is unlawful and a violation of this article for any licensee, collections manager, debt

collector, or solicitor:

(a) To refuse or fail to comply with any rule and regulation adopted pursuant to this article or

any lawful order of the board or administrator; or

(b) To aid or abet any person in such refusal or failure.

(5) It is unlawful and a violation of this article for any person to falsify any information or

make any misleading statements in any application authorized under this article.

(6) Any officer or agent of a corporation who personally participates in any violation of this

article shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in section 12-14-129 for individuals.

18

12-14-129. Criminal penalties. Any person who violates any provision of section 12-14-128

(1), (2), (3), or (4) commits a class 1 misdemeanor and shall be punished as provided in section

18-1.3-501, C.R.S.

12-14-130. Complaint - investigations - powers of the board - sanctions. (1) Upon the filing

with the board by any interested person of a written complaint charging any person with a

violation of this article, any rule adopted pursuant to this article, or any lawful order of the board,

the board shall conduct an investigation thereof.

(2) For reasonable cause, the board may, on its own motion, conduct an investigation of the

conduct of any person concerning compliance with this article.

(3) If any licensee or one of its principals or collections managers is convicted of or enters a

plea of guilty or nolo contendere to any crime specified in part 4 of article 4 or in part 1, 2, 3,

5, or 7 of article 5 of title 18, C.R.S., or any similar crime under the jurisdiction of any

federal court or court of another state, said conviction or plea shall constitute grounds for

disciplinary action under this section.

(4) In any proceeding held under this section, the board may accept as prima facie evidence

of grounds for disciplinary or adverse action any disciplinary or adverse action taken against

a licensee, the licensee's principals, debt collector, solicitor, or collections manager by

another jurisdiction that issues professional, occupational, or business licenses, if the conduct

which prompted the disciplinary or adverse action by that jurisdiction would be grounds for

disciplinary action under this section.

(5) For reasonable cause, the board, or someone designated by it for such purpose, has the

right, during normal business hours without resort to subpoena, to examine the books,

records, and files of any licensee. If the books, records, and files are located outside

Colorado , the licensee shall bear all expenses in making them available to the board or its

designee.

(6) (a) For reasonable cause, the board may require the making and filing, by any licensee, at

any time, of a written, verified statement of the licensee's assets and liabilities, including, if

requested, a detailed statement of amounts due claimants. The board may also require an

audited statement when cause has been shown that an audited statement is needed.

(b) Any financial statement of any applicant or licensee required to be filed with the board

shall not be a public record but may be introduced in evidence in any court action or in any

administrative action involving the applicant or licensee.

(7) For the purpose of any proceeding under this article, the board may subpoena witnesses

and compel them to give testimony under oath. If any witness subpoenaed by the board or an

administrative law judge fails or refuses to appear or testify, the subpoenaing authority may

petition the district court, and, upon proper showing, the court may order such witness to

appear and testify. Disobedience of the order of court may be punished as a contempt of

court.

(8) The board may appoint an administrative law judge pursuant to part 10 of article 30 of

title 24, C.R.S., to conduct any proceedings authorized under this article.

(9) If the board finds cause to believe a licensee or collections manager has violated this

article, any rules adopted pursuant to this article, or any lawful order of the board, the board

shall so notify the licensee or collections manager and hold a hearing. Any proceedings

conducted pursuant to this section shall be in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S.

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(10) (a) If the board or the administrative law judge finds that the licensee or collections

manager has violated this article, the rules adopted pursuant to this article, or any lawful

order of the board, or if the licensee fraudulently obtained a license, the board may issue

letters of admonition, deny, revoke, or suspend the license of such licensee or approval of the

collections manager, place such licensee or collections manager on probation, or impose

administrative fines in an amount up to one thousand dollars per violation on the licensee or

collections manager.

(b) The board or administrator may issue letters of admonition pursuant to paragraph (a) of

this subsection (10) without a hearing; except that the licensee or collections manager

receiving the letter of admonition may request a hearing before the board to appeal the

issuance of the letter.

(c) A letter of admonition may be issued to a licensee or collections manager whether or not

a license or approval has been surrendered prior to said issuance.

(d) No person whose license has been revoked shall be licensed again under the terms of this

article for five years. No person hired as a collections manager whose approval has been

terminated by the administrator for a violation of this article shall be hired again as a

collections manager for five years.

(11) The court of appeals shall have jurisdiction to review all final actions and orders that are

subject to judicial review of the collection agency board. Such proceedings shall be

conducted in accordance with section 24-4-106 (11), C.R.S.

(12) Members of the collection agency board, expert witnesses, and consultants shall be

immune from civil suit when they perform any duties in connection with any proceedings

authorized under this section in good faith. Any person who files a complaint in good faith

under this section shall be immune from civil suit.

12-14-130.1. Debt collectors for the department of personnel - complaint - disciplinary

procedures. (1) Any interested person may file a written complaint with the executive director

of the department of personnel charging a debt collector in the employ of the department of

personnel with a violation of:

(a) This article or a rule promulgated pursuant thereto;

(b) A lawful order of the state board of ethics; or

(c) The standards of conduct set forth in the code of conduct developed by the department of

personnel for such debt collectors.

(2) Each complaint filed pursuant to this section shall be referred to the executive director of

the department of personnel who shall conduct an investigation to determine if a violation of

subsection (1) of this section occurred. If the executive director makes a determination that a

violation did occur, the debt collector who is the subject of the complaint shall be subject to

the disciplinary procedures set forth in rules adopted by the state personnel board. If a

determination made pursuant to this subsection (2) is unsatisfactory to any party, an appeal

may be made to the board of ethics for the executive branch of state government in the office

of the governor.

(3) If the executive director of the department of personnel, or the board of ethics in the case

of an appeal, makes a determination that a debt collector in the employ of the department of

personnel has acted in violation of this article or a rule promulgated pursuant thereto, a

lawful order of the state board of ethics, or the code of conduct described in paragraph (c) of

20

subsection (1) of this section, such determination shall be made a part of the personnel file of

the debt collector against whom the complaint was filed.

12-14-131. Records. The administrator shall keep a suitable record of all license applications

and bonds required to be filed. Such record shall state whether a license has been issued under

such application and bond and, if revoked, the date of the filing of the order of revocation. The

administrator shall keep a list of each person who has had a license revoked or has been

terminated as a collections manager for a violation of this article. In such record, all licenses

issued shall be indicated by their serial numbers and the names and addresses of the licensees.

This section shall apply to renewal applications and renewal licenses. Such record shall be open

for inspection as a public record in the office of the administrator

12-14-132. Jurisdiction of courts. County courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the

district courts of this state in all criminal prosecutions for violations of this article

12-14-133. Duty of district attorney. It is the duty of the district attorney to prosecute all

violations of the provisions of this article occurring within his district.

12-14-134. Remedies. The remedies provided in this article are in addition to and not exclusive

of any other remedies provided by law.

12-14-135. Injunction - receiver. The district court in and for the city and county of Denver ,

upon application of the board, may issue an injunction or other appropriate order restraining any

person from any violation of this article and may appoint a receiver or award any other relief to

effectuate the provisions of this article. This provision shall be in addition to any other remedy

and shall not prohibit the enforcement of any other law. The board shall not be required to show

irreparable injury or to post a bond.

12-14-136. Disposition of fees and fines. (1) (a) All revenue, except fines, collected pursuant to

this article shall be collected by the administrator and transmitted to the state treasurer, who shall

credit the same to the collection agency cash fund, which fund is hereby created. The general

assembly shall make annual appropriations from such fund for the uses and purposes of this

article. All revenue credited to such fund, including earned interest, shall be used for the

administration and enforcement of this article.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of paragraph (a) of this subsection (1) to the contrary, on

March 27, 2002 , the state treasurer shall deduct four hundred sixty-two thousand dollars

from the collection agency cash fund and transfer such sum to the general fund.

(c) Notwithstanding any provision of paragraph (a) of this subsection (1) to the contrary, on

March 5, 2003 , the state treasurer shall deduct one hundred twenty thousand dollars from the

collection agency cash fund and transfer such sum to the general fund.

(2) All fines collected pursuant to this article, including but not limited to fines collected

pursuant to section 12-14-130, shall be collected by the administrator and transmitted to the

state treasurer, who shall credit the same to the general fund.

12-14-137. Termination of board. The collection agency board shall be terminated July 1,

2008. Prior to such termination, the board shall be reviewed as provided in section 24-34-104,

C.R.S.

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RELATED LAWS

5-12-101. Legal rate of interest. If there is no agreement or provision of law for a different

rate, the interest on money shall be at the rate of eight percent per annum, compounded annually.

6-20-201. Definitions [Notification of Debt by a Health Care Provider].

For the purposes of this part 2, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) "Collection agency" shall have the same meaning as in section 12-14-103 (2), C.R.S.

(2) "Health care provider" includes a licensed health care facility pursuant to article 3 of title 25,

C.R.S., and any other health care provider.

6-20-202. Notice to patient of debt [by a health care provider].

(1) (a) When a person has health benefit coverage to provide payment for care or treatment

rendered by a health care provider and the person has notified the health care provider of

coverage, and the health coverage plan as defined in section 10-16-102 (22.5), C.R.S., pays only

a portion of the debt, the health care provider shall mail written notice to the last-known address

of the person responsible for payment of the debt at least thirty days before any collection

activity on any amount due and owing the health care provider.

(b) The notice required by paragraph (a) of this subsection (1) shall include the amount due and

owing; the name, address, and telephone number of the health care provider; where payment may

be made; the date of service; and the last date the health care provider will accept payment prior

to the debt being submitted to a collection agency or reporting adverse information to a

consumer reporting agency for the debt for which notice was provided.

(2) (a) If the health care provider fails to provide the person with notice of such debt and all other

information required by subsection (1) of this section, the health care provider shall not pursue

any rights to collect such outstanding amount either through a collection agency or by any

further efforts of the health care provider to collect the debt. In addition, the health care provider

may not report adverse information to a consumer reporting agency for the debt for which notice

was provided without providing notice to the person pursuant to subsection (1) of this section.

The health care provider shall assist the person in correcting any adverse credit information

because of the health care provider's failure to provide notice pursuant to subsection (1) of this

section.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, a health care provider may

remedy a failure to give notice by providing a written report to the collection agency to withhold

any collection efforts and withholding any of the health care provider's own collection efforts

until the provider complies with the notice and time requirements pursuant to subsection (1) of

this section.

(c) Nothing in this subsection (2) shall be construed to require a health care provider to perform

additional attempts to notify a person of the person's portion of the debt other than mailing the

notice required pursuant to subsection (1) of this section to the person's last-known address and

maintaining a record of such mailing.

13-21-109. Recovery of damages for checks, drafts, or orders not paid upon presentment.

(1) Any person who obtains money, merchandise, property, or other thing of value, or who

makes any payment of any obligation other than an obligation on a consumer credit transaction

as defined in section 5-1-301, C.R.S., by means of making any check, draft, or order for the

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payment of money upon any bank, depository, person, firm, or corporation which is not paid

upon its presentment is liable to the holder of such check, draft, or order or any assignee for

collection for one of the following amounts, at the option of the holder or such assignee:

(a) The face amount of the check, draft, or order plus actual damages determined in

accordance with the provisions of the "Uniform Commercial Code", title 4, C.R.S.; or

(b) An amount equal to the face amount of the check, draft, or order and:

(I) The amount of any reasonable posted or contractual charge not exceeding twenty

dollars; and

(II) If the check, draft, or order has been assigned for collection to a person licensed as

a collection agency pursuant to article 14 of title 12, C.R.S., as costs of collection, twenty percent

of the face amount of the check, draft, or order but not less than twenty dollars; or

(c) An amount as provided in subsection (2) of this section.

(2) (a) If notice of nonpayment on presentment of the check, draft, or order has been given in

accordance with the provisions of subsections (3) and (4) of this section and the total amount due

as set forth in the notice has not been paid within fifteen days after such notice is given, instead

of the amounts set forth in paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) of this section, the person shall

be liable to the holder or any assignee for collection for three times the face amount of the check

but not less than one hundred dollars.

(b) The person, also referred to in this section as the "maker", shall not be liable in

accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subsection (2) if he establishes any one of

the following:

(I) That the account contained sufficient funds or credit to cover the check, draft, or

order at the time the check, draft, or order was made, plus all other checks, drafts, and orders on

the account then outstanding and unpaid;

(II) That the check, draft, or order was not paid because a paycheck, deposited in the

account in an amount sufficient to cover the check, draft, or order, was not paid upon

presentment;

(III) That funds sufficient to cover the check, draft, or order were garnished, attached,

or set off and the maker had no notice of such garnishment, attachment, or setoff at the time the

check, draft, or order was made;

(IV) That the maker of the check, draft, or order was not competent or of full age to

enter into a legal contractual obligation at the time the check, draft, or order was made;

(V) That the making of the check, draft, or order was induced by fraud or duress;

(VI) That the transaction which gave rise to the obligation for which the check, draft,

or order was given lacked consideration or was illegal.

(3) Notice that a check, draft, or order has not been paid upon presentment shall be in writing

and given in person and receipted for, or by personal service, or by depositing the notice by

certified mail, return receipt requested and postage prepaid, or by regular mail supported by an

affidavit of mailing sworn and retained by the sender, in the United States mail and addressed to

the recipient’s most recent address known to the sender. If the notice is mailed and not returned

as undeliverable by the United States postal service, notice shall be conclusively presumed to

have been given on the date of mailing. For the purpose of this subsection (3), "undeliverable"

does not include unclaimed or refused.

(4) The notice given pursuant to subsection (3) of this section shall include the following

information regarding the unpaid check, draft, or order:

(a) The date the check, draft, or order was issued;

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(b) The name of the bank, depository, person, firm, or corporation on which it was

drawn;

(c) The name of the payee;

(d) The face amount;

(e) A statement of the total amount due, which shall be itemized and shall not exceed the

amount permitted under paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) of this section;

(f) A statement that the maker has fifteen days from the date notice was given to make

payment in full of the total amount due; and

(g) A statement that, if the total amount due is not paid within fifteen days after the date

notice was given, the maker may be liable in a civil action for three times the face amount of the

check but not less than one hundred dollars and that, in such civil action, the court may award

court costs and reasonable attorney fees to the prevailing party.

(5) No holder or assignee for collection shall assert that any maker has liability for any amount

set forth under subsection (2) of this section unless such liability has been determined by entry of

a final judgment by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(6) In any civil action brought under this section, the prevailing party may recover court costs

and reasonable attorney fees. In addition, in an action brought under paragraph (b) of subsection

(1) of this section, if the holder or assignee for collection prevails, actual costs of collection may

be recovered by the holder or assignee for collection if such actual costs of collection are greater

than the costs of collection provided under such paragraph (b).

(7) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to any check, draft, or order on which

payment has been stopped by the maker by reason of a dispute relating to the money,

merchandise, property, or other thing of value obtained by the maker.

(8) Nothing in this section applies to any criminal case or affects eligibility or terms of

probation.

(9) Any limitation on a cause of action under this section, except a cause of action under

subsection (2) of this section, shall be governed by the provisions of section 13-80-103.5. Any

limitation on a cause of action under subsection (2) of this section shall be governed by the

provisions of section 13-80-102.

 

 

 

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